Somaliland Country Profile and information

Tuesday June 12, 2012 - 13:45:37 in Somaliland by Super Admin
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    Somaliland Country Profile and information

    Presidents of Somaliland (1991-Present) 28 May 1991 to 16 May 1993 Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur, President SNM 18may 1991 to 16 May 1993 Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, President UDUB 1993 to 3 May 2002 Died in office. 3 May 2002 to 27 July 2010

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Presidents of Somaliland (1991-Present) 28 May 1991 to 16 May 1993 Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur, President SNM 18may 1991 to 16 May 1993 Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, President UDUB 1993 to 3 May 2002 Died in office. 3 May 2002 to 27 July 2010 Dahir Riyale Kahin, President UDUB 27 July 2010 to Present Ahmed Mahamoud Silanyo, President at this time KULMIYE
Discover Somaliland
Somaliland is situated on the eastern horn of Africa and lies between the 08°00' - 11°30' parallel north of the equator and between 42°30' - 49°00' meridian east of Greenwich.
It shares borders with the Republic of Djibouti to the west, the Federal Republic of Ethiopia to the south, the Puntland region to the northeast and Somalia to the southeast. Somaliland has 460 miles (740 km) of coast with the majority along the Red Sea. Somaliland is the size of England and Wales with an area of 137 600 km² (53 100 sq miles).

The History of Somaliland encompasses a wide range of historical Somali issues and archaeological sources, which date back to Prehistoric times. It is widely regarded in Somaliland as an important factor and a key significance in the Culture of Somaliland.
Somaliland Logo

Many scholars and historians viewed that Somaliland's history dated back to colonial times but with the recent discovery of cave paintings outside Hargeisa, there is now a chance that Somaliland is a successor state to a once great and mysterious civilization.


Hargeisa is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Somaliland. The city was the colonial capital of British Somaliland. Hargeisa was heavily bombed by the Somali military in 1988 because of the SNM activity that was forming in Northern Somalia in the beginning of the Somali civil war. But ever since 1991, the city rebuilt itself and become better and more important than it ever was.

Burao is the second largest city in Somaliland and the regional capital of the Togdheer region. Burao is also an important commercial centre, as it hosts the largest livestock market in the region. Trader's from as far as Bossaso in the North East of Somalia, Luq on the boundary with Kenya and Djibouti in the west.

Berbera is a coastal city and serves as the biggest seaport for Somaliland. Berbera is also the regional capital of the Sahil region. The city is bordered by Gulf of Aden, Somaliland regions of Woqooyi, Galbeed, Sanaag, Togdheer and Awdal.

Borama is a city in the Awdal region of Somaliland. It also the commercial centre of the region. Borama is an important education centre as its home to Amoud University, a reputable university in Somaliland. When you visit this city you can explore the beautiful mountains and its surrounding nature.

Las Anod is the regional capital of the Sool region. It's also the capital of Las Anod District. The Sool region has other three districts, which are Ainabo, Taleh and Hudun.

Erigavo lays North East of Somaliland surrounded by very beautiful natural views like the Daallo Mountain. On the top of this mountain you will be able to see an extremely beautiful sight of the sea as well the many small villages.

Zeilla is an ancient port city in the Salal Region of Somaliland. It's bordered by the Gulf of Aden and Awdal region of Somaliland.

Gabiley is a small town about 54 km west of Hargeisa. It's the administrative centre of the district of Gabiley.

Gabiley is located on Somaliland's western fertile region known as "Dhul-beereed". Gabiley is often called the bread basket of Somaliland because of its agricultural productivity.

About Somaliland

Somaliland Map PIcture

Capital city:

Other main cities:
Burao, Berbera, Borama, Erigavo, Las Anod

Main Regions:
Awdal, Maroodi Jeex, Sahil, Sanaag, Sool, Togdheer

Official language:


Somaliland Shilling

3.5 million

Land area:
137,600 sq km2 (53 100 sq miles)

900 km

Land boundaries:
Djibouti 58km, Ethiopia 800km, Somalia 500 km

Weather & Map

The country has a tropical monsoon type of climate; however, there are four distinct seasons. A main rainy spring season from April to June is followed by a dry summer season from July to September. There is then a short autumn rainy period from October to November, and finally a long dry winter from December to March. The latter is the most difficult for the animal herding rural population and to the farmers to a lesser scale. If the April-June rains fail, the result is a drought that could kill most animals which have already been weakened by the December-March dry season, which also severely hits the country's economy.

Annual average precipitation ranges from less than 1000 mm on the coast to 500 mm inland except for limited areas where it may reach 900 mm. Rain variability, is very high. Hargeisa, the capital, for instance, with a long term average of some 400 mm has recorded variations from 209 to 810 mm per annum.

Temperatures also show some seasonal variations. The winter months are normally cool with average December temperatures in the range of 15 - 26°C, while the summer months are the hottest averaging 26 - 32°C in June.

Somaliland History

The Land of Punt

Somaliland together with Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti (collectively known as the Horn of Africa) were known to the Ancient Egyptians as the Land of Punt. The earliest definite record of contact between Ancient Egypt and Punt comes from an entry on the Palermo stone during the reign of Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty around 2250 BCE. It says that, in one year, 80,000 units of myrrh and frankincense was brought to Egypt from Punt as well as other quantities of goods that were highly valued in Ancient Egypt. From the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Dynasty, the contact between Egypt and Punt was broken. This was due to the fact that Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos. The fifth ruler in the Eighteen Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs was Queen Hatshepsut, daughter of Tutmose III. She became Queen in the year 1493 BCE and made a landmark expedition to the land of Punt which is recorded on the walls of the Deir ci-Bahari temple located in Alexandria (Egypt). Her eight ships sailed to the land of Punt and came back with cargoes of fine woods, ebony, myrrh and cinnamon and incense tree to plant in the temple garden.

The roman emperor Augustus sent an expedition to conquer actual Yemen. During that military expedition the roman fleet of Gaius Gallus destroyed the port of Aden in order to open a safe sea route to India and to the Punt for the roman merchants.

Ancient Somaliland

In the Classical era, the port city of Berbera prospered due to largely the involvement of the spice trade, selling myrrh and frankincense to the Romans and Egyptians. Somaliland became known as hubs for spices mainly cinnamon and the cities grew wealthy from it the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea tells us that the northern Somaliland regions of modern-day Somaliland were independent and competed with Aksum for trade.

Ottoman Somaliland

On 1548 CE, the port city of Zeilla was annexed and became part of the vast Ottoman Empire. The reason for this was that Zeilla is situated in a strategic location on the Red Sea because it is near the Bab-el-Mandeb strait; a key area for trade with the East. For 300 years, Zeilla enjoyed trade with other countries and was home to Arab, Persian and even Indian merchants. On 1884, when the empire was on the brink of collapse; Egypt, an Ottoman vassal at that time, occupied western parts of Somaliland, the other regions being controlled by Somaliland. Then, during the Scramble for Africa era, the region now claimed by Somaliland was the British Somaliland Protectorate.

British Somaliland

In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans, the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland. The British garrisoned the protectorate from Aden, Yemen and administered it from their British India colony until 1898. British Somaliland was then administered by the Foreign Office until 1905 and afterwards by the Office. Generally, the British did not have much interest in the resource-barren region. They principally viewed the protectorate as a source for supplies of meat for their British Indian outpost in Aden.

The state of Somaliland achieved its independence from Great Britain on June 26, 1960, by a Royal Proclamation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. In accordance with the United Nations Procedures pertaining to decolonisation, the documents establishing the transfer of sovereignty were deposited with the United Nations. The new state of Somaliland was immediately recognized by other UN member states, including the five permanent members of the Security Council. On July 1, 1960, Somaliland and Somalia declared their union as the Somali Republic. The merger was intended to pave the way for unification under a single flag of all the Somali territories: Somaliland, Somalia, Djibouti, the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya and the "Ogaden" region of Ethiopia.

Despite their common Somali Heritage, Somaliland and Somalia approached the merger as very different countries, with distinct institutional, legal, linguistic, and political arrangements. The links between them were negligible and in 1960 less than one percent of Somaliland commerce was with Somaliland few Somalilanders had ever seen the new capital, Mogadishu.

As the 1980s unfolded, the Siad Barre regime became increasingly unstable, due to the SNM expanded its control in northern Somalia. Mogadishu responded by instituting draconian measures in the north to suppress the SNM. When these failed, the government indiscriminately used raids and bombing campaigns to assert control. Nonetheless, by the end of the 1990s, the SNM controlled virtually all of the northern Somalia including the major towns of Burao and Hargeisa. In January 1991, the brutal Barre government collapsed

Restoration of Somaliland
sovereignty: (May 18, 1991)

In January 1991, the brutal Barre government collapsed and the SNM took power in the North. As the struggle for power in southern Somalia degenerated rapidly into civil war, the SNM leadership abandoned hopes that an acceptable government could be established in Mogadishu and withdrew its forces from the battle for the capital. A peace conference of the clans of the north was called in Burao in April 1991. On 18 May 1991, the 1960 union was unilaterally dissolved by the northerners who declared, on the same day, the restoration of Somaliland as an independent state.

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